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My research focuses on RNA, which performs a plethora of different functions in the cell by folding into specific structures and, often, interconverting between different structures. My lab uses a variety of biophysical techniques, centered around spectroscopy and single-molecule microscopy, to probe the structures and dynamics of systems ranging from isolated RNAs to large RNA-protein complexes. Our current research focuses on RNAs that regulate gene expression through their interactions with proteins and metabolites. We also investigate very short RNAs as model systems, uncovering how the spectroscopic signals that we use to study more complex systems depend on the fine details of RNA structure.